Biofuels can either be liquid, solid, or gas types.
- Liquid types are made from a variety of different sources, including vegetable oils and animal fats that can be processed in the same way as traditional fossil fuels. They provide an alternative to conventional gasoline or diesel fuel for automobiles, buses, trucks, trains, etc.
- Solid types usually come in pellet form and have many advantages over liquid types because they produce more heat per unit mass than liquid types do; this means less energy is required to convert them into useable biofuel which reduces cost exponentially and emissions too! The pellets also burn at lower temperatures so there’s no need for catalysts like when using liquids. Not only does this help prevent corrosion, but it makes solid types easier to store since they don’t require refrigeration nor do they need to be turned into gaseous types for storage.
- Gas types are mostly made from methane which is derived from a variety of sources including natural gas and landfills! They’re typically processed at high temperatures in special reactors that help create the hydrogen needed to combine with carbon dioxide (which can come from just about anywhere) and convert it into fuels such as ethanol, methanol, or diesel fuel.
On the other hand, biofuels can also be categorized further as first, second, third, and fourth-generation biofuels considering the feedstock source they are derived from.
- First-generation biofuels are made from sugar and starch types that can be processed into alcohols such as ethanol or butanol. They have been around for decades now, dating back to the 1800’s when they were originally used in gas lamps!
- Second-generation types of biofuel come from cellulose which is found in plant types like corn husks, wheat straw, grasses etc. These types of biomass materials require more energy input than first-generation types because it needs to undergo a process called “thermal conversion” before it can be converted into fuel types.
- Third-generation type sources are mostly microalgae – an organism that naturally produces oil (lipids) and creating renewable liquid fuels out of them has been a long-term goal for scientists around the world.
First Generation Biofuels: Sugar & Starch Types Processed Into Alcohols (Ethanol)
The type most prominently found in this category is ethanol which comes from sugar cane plants! It has been used as an alternative to gasoline since the 1800’s when gas lamps were still a common household appliance.
The other types that fall under this category are butanol which comes from fast-growing types of grasses and sugarcane molasses, as well as biodiesel made from vegetable oils or animal fats!
Second Generation Biofuels: Cellulose Processed Into Usable Fuels (Solid)
The most prominent type in this category is pelletized biomass types like corn husks for example. When using these types of fuel sources, the energy required to convert them into usable biofuel is lower because there’s no need for catalysts during processing – they also burn at a much lower temperature which helps prevent corrosion when storing them too!
Third Generation Biofuels: Microalgae Producing Usable Fuels
As the name suggests, types of biofuel in this category are made from microalgae that naturally produce oils (lipids) that can be converted into renewable liquid fuels! This is a long-term goal for scientists around the world who have been working on it since at least 1986. Microalgae types may also need to undergo an additional process called “thermal conversion” if they’re not already liquids before being turned into fuel types like gasoline or diesel.
Liquid Type Biofuels
Liquid types are made from vegetable oils and animal fats; solid types usually come in pellet form while gas types use methane. Liquid types provide an alternative to traditional fossil fuels whereas solid types produce more heat per unit mass than liquid counterparts do. Solid type pellets also require less energy to turn into biofuel types than liquid types do. Gas-type fuels are derived from methane and processed at high temperatures in special reactors which help create hydrogen needed for the conversion of carbon dioxide into ethanol, methanol, or diesel fuel.
Solid Type Biofuels
Solid types usually come in pellet form and have many advantages over liquid ones due to their higher heating capacity meaning lower cost exponentially but also emissions too because there’s no need for catalysts. Not only does this help prevent corrosion but it makes them easier to store since they don’t require refrigeration or need to be turned into gaseous types for storage. Gas types are made of methane and processed at high temperatures in special reactors; by combining hydrogen with carbon dioxide, a variety of fuels can be created such as ethanol, methanol, or diesel fuel.
Gas Types Biofuels
Gas types are mostly made from methane which is derived from natural gas and landfills; they’re processed at high temperatures in special reactors where hydrogen combined with carbon dioxide turns it into ethanol, methanol or diesel fuel. These types also produce more heat per pound than their liquid counterparts do because liquids typically require higher temperatures than gas types do during processing but can be stored easily without refrigeration due to being lighter and having less space constraints! Liquid types provide an alternative to traditional fossil fuels whereas solid types usually have advantages over their liquid counterparts such as requiring lower costs (due to less energy for conversion) and producing fewer emissions. Plus, they’re easier to store because there’s no need for refrigeration and the types of biofuels needed are not gaseous so you can store them without worrying about space constraints; this is different with solid types which require more heat sources in order to produce a similar amount of heat per unit mass as liquid types do.
Types of Biofuels: first, second, & third generation biofuels.
The types of biofuels that are currently in use include ethanol, biodiesel, and butanol. Ethanol is an alcohol-based fuel produced by fermenting sugars from crops such as corn or sugarcane. Bioethanol is typically blended with gasoline to make a renewable E85 fuel for cars tuned to run on this mixture; it can replace up to 85% of the fossil fuels normally used by automobiles. Biodiesel refers primarily to diesel made from vegetable oils (such as soybean oil) or animal fats. It can be mixed into conventional diesel at any concentration, making all diesel vehicles capable of running on 100% plant-based resources if desired. Biobutanol may also refer specifically to synthetic types like methyl ethyl butanol (MEB) or tert-butyl alcohol.
Butanol is also an alcohol-based fuel made from sugars, but in this case, it’s the sugar found in plants such as corn cobs and stalks rather than types like cane juice or beetroot. It can be blended with gasoline at any concentration up to 100% for use by automotive tuned to run on E100 fuel; it could replace all fossil fuels normally used by cars if desired.
The types of biofuels that are being developed for the second generation are more diverse and have a higher percentage of ethanol, which is an alcohol. The types include cellulosic fuels (which pulls its energy from plant materials), biopower plants, biodiesel made from animal fats or vegetable oil, hydrogen fuel cells, and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity/hydrogen-gas combustion engines to name a few.
There are several types of biofuels that have been developed in recent years. Among the most popular types of third-generation biofuel is Fischer-Tropsch diesel, which can be used to replace petroleum-based fuels such as gasoline and natural gas.
However, more research needs to be done before it becomes economically feasible for use on a large scale. One potential obstacle is that these types of fuel produce sulfur dioxide when they burn – this has already been an issue with coal power plants because burning coal produces so much sulfur dioxide.
Another type of third-generation biodiesel includes hydro processed esters and fatty acids or HEFA’s (often called ‘soybean oil’). These types of fuels need refining processes not needed by other types of biofuels and therefore are not widely available, but more research needs to be done before these types can be used on a large scale.
Scientists and engineers are developing ways to turn algae into fuel for cars. Algae is an aquatic plant that, when it’s exposed to sunlight, produces oils which can be converted into biofuels like biodiesel or ethanol. One method of producing these fuels involves mixing water with carbon dioxide gas (CO2), nitrogen gas (N2) – though there may also be other methods in the future – then exposing this concoction to light from a solar panel set up overtop the tank where algae lives; if conditions were perfect, this would create enough energy within about five days’ time so as not only produce oil but power itself entirely off its own weight!
When carbon dioxide and nitrogen combine, they form bubbles of pure oxygen gas. When excess solar energy combines with hydrogen atoms found in water molecules, the resulting bound protons create an elemental ingredient for prolific species such as blue-green algae. Algae are fast-growing plants capable of producing more biomass than conventional crops like corn; they can also be cultivated on non-arable land meaning that these plants could grow anywhere from fields to hazardous zones without being harmed by environmental conditions or human interference while still producing a high yield – making them ideal candidates for biofuel production due to their ability to produce biodiesel and biogasoline fuels.